INTRODUCTION

Globalization refers to those processes, operating on a global scale, that cross national borders, integrating and connecting communities and organizations in new combinations of space-time, making the world, in reality and in experience, more interconnected.

In the case of learning, human / society relationships are interdependent, which is why it is Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diploma, Comprar Diploma Quente understood that identifying the current context of fundamental education in globalization means placing learning in this context in which it is present.

Fundamental education, as opposed to the basic supplier of trainable labor, is strategic, within this conception of globalized modernity. One of the foundations of fixation in the modern competing world is the mastery and production of knowledge, which extends to be a virtue, analyzing one of the roles that schools are destined for tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

Taking a math class needs to have a space where experiences can be performed and the challenge of knowing and mastering one’s own limits, being able to work with diversity and also promoting the adaptation of knowledge, collectively Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diploma, Comprar Diploma Quente. Distinguishing the environment is essential so that the teacher can win the student to pay attention in class. And the great challenge of overcoming students’ dispersion in relation to the objects they may know.

The general objective of this article is to find out what are the difficulties with mathematics in relation to elementary education.

The specific objective is the difficulties of mathematics, learning, experiences and challenges to be met tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

Finally, a personal analytical synthesis of the research is presented through the final considerations.

THE EXPECTATION OF MATHEMATICS
It is possible to recognize in the subjects’ narratives both the emphasis of teaching being thought from the effort to give it greater scientificity and a sense of collectivity, as well as the expectations of being able to contribute to bring about changes. In this way, we consider the social relevance, criticality and search for updating as elements present in thinking about the investigative posture in Higher Education.

To conceive it in this way, however, it is necessary to overcome the role of “teacher” that we were talking about. To suppose that the success of the student depends on the teacher alone or that the exercise of mere transmission of content can be a sufficient condition for learning to occur.

Who will educate educators? It is necessary that they educate themselves and educate themselves by listening to the needs that the century calls for, of which students are carriers. It is obvious that criticism and external pronouncements are lacking, but Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diploma, Comprar Diploma Quente, above all, what is needed is an inner questioning . (MERANI, 1997, p. 67 )

Alongside this, it is also from the respect for the own insufficiencies and limitations as inherent to the being that seeks and invests in itself, that interacts, learns and teaches that we can find ways to emphasize the responsibilities so that the teaching professional can continue to to be established, expanding and enforcing public policies that include guidelines for continuous investments in the qualification of teaching staff.

We think that this discussion reinforces the tendency of the research subjects to see teaching as something in constant change and that it constitutes, in an inseparable way tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, of the investigation and search for the production of significant knowledge.

In recent years, the pressures of the university world against the artificial fragmentation of knowledge and the affirmation of the need for a greater correspondence between the subjects studied and reality have been frequent, requiring a style of training that prepares to combine several approaches of analysis of the real.

The measure aims to expand pedagogical training for those who consider teaching in Higher Education a possible field of professional activity. However, in addition to this possibility, it also brings training for teaching closer to training for research.

In fact, such concerns have not been limited to teachers. To a greater or lesser extent, depending on the environment, these issues have gradually changed the way of conceiving the specificities and scope of the teacher’s role in the academic and social environment.

We constantly reaffirm Compra de Diploma, Comprar Diploma, Comprar Diploma Quente, when we discuss the overcoming in teaching that we have constituted, the conviction that changing does not mean disregarding everything that is considered traditional, and in the name of creativity, so in vogue nowadays, simply trying to include other ways of doing different.

Not least because much of what is considered today, outdated, has already been used and valued in the past and therefore has value tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. They are established practices, which in a given educational space-time, worked. The issue is not, specifically, as it points out against, in terms that we are adopting.

Or without an emancipatory worldview, aimed at the subject who wants to contribute to help form who is part of a society for which both, student and trainer, become aware and commit to wanting to try to improve, through action-reflection – reflected practice.

Evidently, times and terms have changed. Hence the need to reinvent itself, which is the most traditional in us, without having to do so, however, having to bury it completely, as we recognize that in some specific situations, they may even function more effectively than the new one ceaselessly pursued and that we see, on several occasions, linked to market-type fads.

According to Mizukami ( 1996, p. 167 ) It is favorable to discuss appropriate risk availability, the agreement of the new that cannot be refused or received just because it is new, just as the discernment of abdication to the old is not only the chronological one. The old man who saved his legality or who embodies a species or marks an appearance in time remains original.

Among others, they signal that there are clear indications, that there has always been a tendency to try to break with reproductive teaching tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, defined by some researchers, as teaching based on ready-made formulas, in repetition, without connection with the lived history, without combat and without clash.

Learning Mathematics
For a better understanding of the learning context, it is necessary to analyze how human beings elaborate it, as well as, what bond the subject ends up bringing with them in relation to learning.

In this sense, Portal ( 2005 ) learning is a process of active adaptation, through which the subject, due to a given situation, ends up receiving, as well as, incorporating the conduct schemes, resulting in similar situations now experienced, being able to occur to the modification of such schemes with the purpose of producing a conduct totally adequate to the situation experienced in the present.

According to Pozo (1998 ) the learning process at the intersection brought by Piaget’s theory, learning is divided into the following dimensions:

  • Biological dimension: for Piaget it ends up being divided into two functions, being these: life and knowledge. Therefore, information conservation and anticipation occur. In this way, the conservation of information ends up referring to the notion of “memory”, where the process is verified through the acquisition of learning and, consequently, its conservation tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. Thus, anticipation refers to the formation of conditioned reflexes, with instrumental conditioning being the relations resulting from a determined action on the true reality, which is guided by the coordination of the scheme resulting from a process of differentiation of the data that is accommodated.
  • Positive dimension : the present according to Placco (1994 ) ends up being divided into three types: a) trial and error, where the subject ends up acquiring a determined totally new behavior, adapting, thus, to a previous situation considered unknown, but , arising from the sanctions now brought by the previous experience; b) Regulation, where the transformations of the various objects occur, as well as mutual relations, with experience being the main function of confirming or even correcting all hypotheses tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado or even anticipation that may enable internal manipulation of the objects. Thus, the so-called feedback procedures are understood by means of assimilation schemes, as well as, by means of anticipation mechanisms and consequent feedback, that are really capable of correcting the application of the scheme, in order to promote the accommodation considered necessary ; c) Structural learning, is linked to the birth of structures considered as logical of thought itself, through which it is possible to organize an intelligible reality, which is balanced. In this way, the structures now learned cannot be considered, as they end up building the condition of all learning. Therefore, the experience ends up fulfilling an important as well as a necessary function, bringing up the previous schemes constituted and transformed due to incompetence, making it possible to bring about the transformations.
  • Social dimension: it ends up understanding the behaviors aimed at the transmission of culture, perpetuating the objectives as an institution, covering both the school and the family as a means of promoting education.
  • Psychic dimension: the learning process ends up being considered as a kind of function of the self, and, for that, it is necessary to understand the principle of pleasure and also of reality, taking into account the present dimension. According to Placco (1994 ) for Freud, the individual is formed by two instincts, these being: life, which manifests itself in the form of libido, having as function the union of individuals, and the death instinct, which ends up acting against civilization as the inorganic state is sought, through aggressive manifestations. It appears that these instincts have the purpose of preserving, as well as, the functioning of the human organism through impulses, understood as a totally dynamic process aimed at the pressure or force reaching the target organism.

Thus, education through civilization ends up being on track, taking advantage of its and energy in cultural works (Sampaio, 1998 ). Therefore, learning establishes a contact between the psychic reality and the external one, where a function is postulated capable of really transforming the sensory data, going back to the elements focused on thinking. In this way, the elements end up grouping in a barrier aimed at protecting emotion, as well as, not allowing mutual interference that may alter the reverie or even the understanding of the concrete situation. Therefore, learning is not present in a single process, but in several, enabling its main purpose.

A child’s development is characterized by a radical change in his behavior. At each stage, the individual creates several tasks that reconstruct his psychological processes, but the development of a dialectical process is summarized in a change of straight line.

A child’s development is characterized by periodicity, inequality in the development of different functions, metamorphosis or qualitative transformation from one form to another, embracing internal and external factors, and adaptive processes that overcome the impediments that the child encounters. (DEMBO, 1994, p. 57 ) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

Children always have ready answers and are able to form, depending on their mental development. This approach implies that learning goes hand in hand with development. So we analyzed that learning has an important role in development.

According to Enderie (1999) The zone of proximal development is a concept designed to refer to the distance between an individual’s real development level and his potential development level. It defines the functions that have not yet matured, but are in the process of maturation. This concept proves that a child’s mental development can only be determined if its two levels are revealed. The zone of proximal development therefore allows access to not only what has already been achieved, but what is in the process of maturation.

It concludes, then, that good learning is one that advances development and not one that addresses the levels of development that have already been reached. The essential characteristic of learning is the ability to create the development zone that triggers internal processes that can only operate from the child’s interaction with other people. (MOLL, 1996, p. 889 )

The meaning of a word is fickle, fluid, changes according to the needs of the subject in a given context tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. This dynamism thus offers an enrichment of words, which come to mean more than what their meaning contains, when isolated, because the zones of meaning expand from the subject’s subjective discourse in relation to the social other. (MOLON, 1999).

We know that learning and development are related to affection. An emotion fact that happened is more remembered than an indifferent fact. However, when a teacher communicates something with a student he needs to achieve his feeling and emotion.

The emotion is not less than the thought, they need to be worked on by the teachers, and make the students start to feel. It is very difficult to have emotion between students and teachers, it must be the fact that teachers do not know the means to demonstrate this love to students.

However, it is exactly the emotions that should form the basis for the educational process. Before communicating a certain sense, the teacher must raise the respective emotion in the student and be concerned with that emotion is linked to new knowledge. The existence of the emotional moment is indispensable in the educational process. (OLIVEIRA, 1992, p. 134)

According to Patto (2002, p. 72) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado Affects such as curiosity, interest, admiration are directly related to intellectual activity and guide it in the most evident way. Imagination, for example, is closely related to these emotions, among others. It is therefore an activity rich in emotional moments. When observing the forms of imagination related to creativity, oriented towards reality, he postulates that the frontier between realistic thinking and imagination is blurred, considering imagination as a decisively necessary moment, inseparable from realistic thinking.

The playful way is an excellent way to organize emotions. Because she is emotional and very strong and clear feelings are aroused in children, so they learn to follow their affections and to match the rules of the game and reach the final.

Playing is a way to develop education in different ways, and still obtain a link between them. The child who is playing builds learning, and he feels like evolving, to see how good it is to learn through play.

The emotional needs of different students, as well as providing support and services that meet those needs, is a fundamental task of schools to ensure that learning and development happen. So the school cannot forget, in its educational process, the education that happened and happens in the family. (SAVIANI, 1999).

Thus, teaching must start from the construction of bonds, the student’s knowledge and needs and the recognition of their potential tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. As seen previously, it is the joyful emotions that would help to provide the formation of proximal development zones, an essential characteristic in learning. (SANCHES, 2003).

In education, it undoubtedly refers to fundamental teaching learning practices. It is understood, in this aspect, that the theoretical appreciation must be reached at the moment of the practice of how it is carried out, even the theoretical contributions of the researchers of the subject.

The research was carried out focusing on the structure used in learning, which is easier to learn, the strategies used to carry out the learning, significant learning, the procedures used for meditation, awareness and influence on the learning procedure itself tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

What we study is influenced and constituted by feeling and intellectual position that involves expectations, personal directions, emotions and thinking cannot be separated; that is why an appropriate emotional climate is indispensable for a deep education. (LIBÂNEO, 1999, p. 245)

Thus, based on these found premises, the research points to an educational attitude that considers in its teaching practices, both the strictly cognitive and inductive stature, as well as emotional or affectionate extensions.

School civilization encompasses extreme extension. The learning of importance, dexterity and values ​​involves feelings, emotions, linked to family, school relationships and other environments where students live. Providing meaningful learning judges, on the part of the teacher, to evaluate and cover motivations, with the needs of students different from each other, ability to communicate with the world of the other, sensitivity to situate the teaching relationship in the physical, social and cultural context of the student.

Therefore, practices related to daily life, to the student’s universe, to professional practice, in addition to others that end up taking the field of action outside the classroom are understood as facilitators of learning. What sanctions, therefore tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado, remains with the logical answers with the most up-to-date documentation and the legislation proposed in the curricular guidelines, which affirm that theory and practice need to go together.

It can be inferred, after analyzing the answers given and establishing a relationship with the previous chapter, that, according to the students, the continuing education and the increase must be performed in the method, in the institutional environment and in the daily action. Thus, the form, which starts from the students’ declaration, that the contextualization of the teacher’s duel implies extrapolating the confines of the classroom to enable meaningful learning.

According to Nidelcoff ( 1999, p. 63 ) Research that promotes the valorization of knowledge as a tactic to produce learning. It proposes that copying is a boring method, publicly owned, even small children, uses strategic use, to improve with age and experience in its use.

The student no longer wishes to listen to the teacher’s speech. He values ​​and knows that his learning also depends on his probabilities, his comprehensiveness. Despite being contradictory, with the data collected in the learning strategies, it can be inferred that, when it comes to learning.

The student clearly points out the path where the elementary education institutions could deepen and improve the students’ learning and training processes, as well as optimizing the teaching methodologies to be used by the teachers tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

On the other hand, the data also show the concept of pleasure as an element that helps in learning. It could be guaranteed, with support in the answers, that the students seem to be happier and he says he feels closer several times when he uses the tactic categorized with the name of practical and / or dynamic activities.

Learning as a major restructuring movement , practicing a resemblance to the spiral shape of the movement. The spiral never more returns to the same subject; it continues its movement in circles, without closing completely, allowing renewal. (NÓVOA, 1992, p. 97)

In such a way, we can understand, regarding the exteriority included with the memorization methods, that the student remembers the contents using sometimes association strategies, sometimes elaboration strategies. To recover the contents, he also uses a line of associationist understanding, and the dependence on new and old information is performed through the ability to relate, establish analogies and perceive differences.

According to Paquay ( 2001, p. 172, 2001) Therefore, the emphasis on practical training is a component of fundamental relevance. The type of knowledge that is valued is practical knowledge, knowledge that can solve everyday problems. The practice perspective related to the learning processes considers it relevant to research the meta cognitive learning processes to observe how they are currently in the students’ perception.

THE DIFFICULTIES OF MATHEMATICS
Given the teaching-learning context, it is possible to verify that the child who presents some type of difficulty, ends up suffering difficulties during the performance of academic activities tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

In this way, the social interaction now established in the school environment ends up contributing to the development of the individual, starting to be confronted with diverse points, which is influenced by the school of values ​​that the group adopts. These social interactions determine the role socially played by each child.

According to work presented by Torres (1999 ) focused on the sociometric status of children with and without learning difficulties, it was possible to verify that subjects with difficulties are usually more rejected than those who do not have any type of learning difficulty.

In studies carried out by Collange (199 4), it ended up identifying that students are accepted without any kind of learning difficulties, and afterwards, those with some kind of difficulty are accepted.

In this sense, it appears that the greater the social acceptance, consequently, the lower the difficulty in relation to learning, as well as, the low performance, and the aggressive reactions also end up being linked to the figure of acceptance (DAVIS , 1994 ) tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

Thus, it appears that social and affective relationships in learning end up guiding the child’s figure, creating reflections on the student’s success or failure during his academic development.

Therefore, pedagogical practice ends up being called teaching, where it seeks to stimulate student learning. Thus, in some cases, the curriculum ends up with totally different formats, aimed at producing different results, bringing up content and specific form to achieve a determined situation.

Therefore, teaching becomes transparent to a process aimed at reflecting on relationships, extrapolating all individual conditions, which may affect the subjects in a unique way.

This process brings with it totally technical and scientific conceptions, which are based on the development and also on the learning of the whole process now proposed.

Educational institutions start to take responsibility for other aspects of human formation, which were not covered in depth by the family institution. The research indicates issues related to ethical education in elementary education , to be addressed in greater depth.

The analysis of the second category of answers reveals a question that may also be related to awareness and mastery of learning processes. When the student realizes that the reason for the learning difficulty is caused by the teacher’s methodology, in fact he is not aware of or has mastery of his learning process tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

It refers to the perspective of some students still using learning strategies of associationist origin, based on simple repetition. In other words, the fact of not being autonomous, having no mastery, nor awareness of the learning processes is justified when it is known that the student uses repetition strategies, depending exclusively on what is transmitted by the teacher[3] .

Contextualization encourages a holistic view. The teacher needs to argue and discover complete, to encourage students to conceive the whole with its mentioned parts. It is constitutional that students are historically faced with the indicated theme. It is up to you to appreciate and undertake the theme, showing the link and the interrelation that is constituted with the investigated subject.

It is also observed that the student has no mastery and little awareness of his learning process. The information raised in this question is still in line with the approach in which the causes of learning difficulties are external.

In fact, teachers need to reflect on their teaching practices and adapt to the changes that the new times demand. They also need to direct teaching towards students’ self-knowledge and the certainty that learning also depends on their attitudes, as subjects of their own learning tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

It seems that, to face the difficulties, they, the students, use constructivist strategies. Reading is a type of restructuring learning , an elaboration strategy, with the purpose of building internal meanings. (SCHON, 1992, p. 53)

Refer to written and spoken words; it is learning and knowledge through the telling and writing of stories, the memorization of facts, poetry, etc. Traditional psychology has always sustained the intelligent character of linguistic ability, and is in fact an important part of the tests .

Reading is the verbal interaction between certain individuals. It is a social process, not an individual one. In fact, she says that reading is by no means an act disconnected from everything; it is in verbal interaction that individuals communicate.

Thus, the conditions of critical access to the text enable the existence of an active reader, who dialogues creatively with the text, to the point that this reading interferes in his own life. It presupposes a complex network of interrelationships, ranging from the macroeconomic, social and educational to the cultural and personal issues tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado.

The written language for the ruling class speaks the truth of a knowledge. On the other hand, writing is always closely linked to reading. Its use is a privilege reserved for the dominant classes. For this reason, writing brings marks of these classes, not only of linguistic forms but also of ideology.

According to Severino ( 1991, p. 73 ) He also argues that the acquisition of reading becomes an instrument of social ascension tcc, monografias, monografias prontas, dissertação de mestrado e tese de doutorado. This confirms the hypothesis that reading is an additional instrument at the service of economic escalation in the current context. Even so, the text does not exist for reading; on the other hand, reading is not passive acceptance, but it is an active construction, since each reading is a new writing of a text. The same text is multiplied in infinite texts according to the number of readings.

Reading is one of the few human acquisitions that can release or dominate to the same degree. It can be considered, after oral language, one of the main forms of communication and expression of thought. It is also through reading that the ideologies that matter are transmitted, so it is essential that individuals become aware.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
The knowledge that affective difficulties, of interacting with others and expressing themselves verbally had hindered their development, which led the teacher to seek, during the process of teacher formation, knowledge that would guide her practice in the classroom so that it could not happen with students what she would have happened to her.

The teacher seeks , through continuous training, to qualify her pedagogical action in order to offer students several moments of interaction, in which she comes to promote learning. Generally, the works are in groups with varied backgrounds to have different moments, such as solving and creating problems, correcting exercises, writing texts, making visual material and using games.

The report that school mathematics should only be responsible for the development of specific skills, such as calculus and problem solving, was part of the initial aspect that the teacher had in teaching mathematics.

In the course of formation, through courses, lectures, events, readings, associated with the experience itself, this aspect has been increased, in such a way that today there is a conception of the teaching of mathematics aimed at adapting the meanings of concepts in a way to develop the competence to think, reflect, dialogue and build relationships between the studied contents.

In this procedure of professional development, the interference of different trends in the history of mathematical education is imagined in the pedagogical proposal when it provides to present activities that specialize the interaction in the classroom.